You've just asked a question almost as big as "what is the meaning of life". [img]images/icons/smile.gif[/img]
QA and QA activities are both carried out during the lifecycle of a testing project.
To give a full list would be to write dozens of books and articles and have hundreds of discussions... hey, we HAVE! [img]images/icons/smile.gif[/img]
Check out the posts under the subjects that interest you, check the links in yellow to your left, and before you know it, you'll be contributing information yourself.