I would like to extend this topic discussion. First of all separate following things:
1) Test planning/managing methodology (e.g. risk-based planning, requirements-based management)
2) Test documentation/execution methodology (e.g. using IEEE standard and done in unit-integration-system levels)
3) Test design techniques (e.g. using exploratory testing to list cases and use boundary-value to set test data)
Now the question should be – “what are the testing methodologies and techniques in software testing?”
The answer is – there are a lot of them. More over some of them are old and somehow outdated, but books/training materials still refer them and there are a lot of new. The issue is that there are no good book that would systematically describe all the new and actual techniques and methodologies. So far I have found only SWEBOK http://www.swebok.org trying to list all of the actual methodologies and techniques. However it does not describe them, only list.
My suggestion is to use SWEBOK (chapter 5) as list and search web for descriptions. Still it depends on the goal. If you want to show that you are educated in testing (e.g. this is interview question), you should still read all the outdated stuff, like black/white boxes because most of the managers still think this is the actual testing knowledge to possess.
Ainers might make sense to open these as three seperate threads, ie two new ones. I have only just become aware of SWEBOK, a month or so back (how could I have missed that, bad move) and I am still working my way through it.
I tend to agree that each of the three points could be a thread in their own right.