In real it depends up on the application you are going to test.
Some times we are given proper documentation. And we follow these. Write test plans, test design, test cases and then we execute programs.
But some times we are given an application may be a web or desktop. A few documents and briefing and we start testing. there are random meetings and discussion.
it all depends upon what are being followed in an organization.
The testing team should be involved right from the requirements stage itself.
STLC phases or Testing Process:
*Prepare Test Plan
*Test Case Design
*Test Case Execution
*Bug Reporting& Regression Testing
*Client Acceptance & Support during acceptance
*Test Summary Analysis
"Testing can show the presence,but not the absence of errors